Health

New York Bans Hydraulic Fracturing After Health Report

Source: Reuters | 17 December 2014

New York state will ban hydraulic fracturing after a long-awaited report concluded that the oil and gas extraction method poses health risks, Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s administration said on 17 December.

New York Environmental Commissioner Joseph Martens said at a cabinet meeting that he will issue an order early next year banning hydraulic fracturing, which has been under a moratorium since 2008. Once that happens, New York will join Vermont as the only states to completely prohibit the practice.

The decision ends what has been a fierce debate in New York over the benefits and pitfalls of hydraulic fracturing, a process that involves pumping water, sand, and chemicals into a well to extract oil or gas. Many in the state saw gas drilling as a key economic resource while others argued it was too dangerous.

The state’s health commissioner, Howard Zucker, said there is not enough scientific information to conclude that hydraulic fracturing is safe.

“The potential risks are too great, in fact not even fully known, and relying on the limited data presently available would be negligent on my part,” Zucker said.

Oil & Gas UK Publishes Ebola Guidelines

Source: Oil Online | 16 October 2014

Oil & Gas UK has published guidelines for mitigating the Ebola risk. Alix Thom, employment and skills issues manager at Oil & Gas UK, said, “While we believe the overall risk to the UK is low, Oil & Gas UK is addressing concerns about the Ebola virus by issuing guidance to our members on how to respond to the potential risk to the health and safety of our workers in the UK offshore oil and gas industry.”

Key Recommendations

  • Ensure personnel receive appropriate advice on avoiding Ebola infection before deployment to Ebola-affected countries.
  • Ensure that personnel returning from deployment to Ebola-affected countries are reminded to seek medical attention if they are unwell, or become unwell within 21 days of return, and that personnel should tell the doctor they have recently been to an Ebola-affected country.
  • Maintain a list of personnel returning from deployment to Ebola-affected countries to assist in government screening procedures.
  • Remind personnel not to proceed offshore if feeling unwell, unless they have sought medical advice first, and that personnel should tell the doctor if they have recently been to an Ebola-affected country.
  • Delay any intended visit to a UK offshore installation for a worker who has been (for work or personal reasons) to an Ebola-affected country until a period of 21 days has passed since their return.
  • Seek assurance from their medical adviser/contractors (where relevant) that they aware of Public Health England and Health Protection Scotland advice on clinical assessment of suspected Ebola cases.

Exxon Cuts Travel to West Africa Amid Ebola Fears

Source: Houston Business Journal | 15 October 2014

ExxonMobil has restricted nonessential travel to Liberia and Nigeria because of the Ebola virus. Non-Liberian employees were rotated out of that country over the summer and continue to work in other locations.

“We are taking appropriate health and safety precautions with our national staff in Liberia, including providing the capability to work from home,” said Richard Keil, an Exxon spokesman.

Rex Tillerson, CEO of Irving, Texas-based Exxon, has said the spread of Ebola in Africa could affect the company’s ability to drill the first offshore well in Liberia.

“Travel restrictions into and within the country have severely limited our ability to progress plans for drilling,” Keil said. “We remain committed to exploring Block 13 when conditions in Liberia improve.”

Exxon CEO Says Company Has Seen Some Disruption From Ebola Outbreak

Source: Reuters | 2 October 2014

ExxonMobil has seen some of its oil and gas activities in west Africa disrupted by the ebola outbreak, including plans to drill offshore Liberia, the company’s chief executive officer said on Thursday.

Exxon, the world’s largest publicly traded oil company, which has operations in Nigeria and Liberia, is prohibiting some employees from traveling to the countries directly affected by the disease and is taking precautionary measures related to workers’ families, executive said.

The virus has killed at least 3,338 people in west Africa in the worst such outbreak on record. Earlier this week, the first person was diagnosed with ebola in the United States, in Dallas.

“We had some drilling plans for some blocks offshore west Africa in Liberia,” CEO Rex Tillerson told a news conference to announce USD 18 million in grants to three Houston hospitals.

“We are having to look at when it would be prudent to resume operations there because you do have to have shore-based support.”

OSHA Announces New Reporting Requirements for Serious Injuries and Fatalities

Source: OSHA | 12 September 2014

The US Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)  on 11 September announced a final rule requiring employers to notify OSHA when an employee is killed on the job or suffers a work-related hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye. The rule, which also updates the list of employers partially exempt from OSHA record-keeping requirements, will go into effect on 1 January 2015 for workplaces under federal OSHA jurisdiction.

The announcement follows preliminary results from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ 2013 National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

“Today, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that 4,405 workers were killed on the job in 2013. We can and must do more to keep America’s workers safe and healthy,” said US Secretary of Labor Thomas E. Perez. “Workplace injuries and fatalities are absolutely preventable, and these new requirements will help OSHA focus its resources and hold employers accountable for preventing them.”

Under the revised rule, employers will be required to notify OSHA of work-related fatalities within 8 hours and work-related in-patient hospitalizations, amputations, or losses of an eye within 24 hours. Previously, OSHA’s regulations required an employer to report only work-related fatalities and in-patient hospitalizations of three or more employees. Reporting single hospitalizations, amputations, or loss of an eye was not required under the previous rule.

Hearing Protection Ratings Explained

Source: Sensear | 25 August 2014

Those who are well informed about on-the-job noise exposure and the dangers therein are typically familiar with the term “hearing protection ratings.” However, there are still many employers and employees who have not been adequately informed about hearing protection ratings and noise reduction ratings. Individuals who are not familiar with the aforementioned terms may benefit from reading this brief explanation. By remaining informed about occupational noise exposure and related concepts such as hearing protection ratings and noise reduction ratings, employers and employees alike can intentionally pursue safety without reducing work efficiency.

What Are Hearing Protection Ratings?

Hearing protection ratings are often referred to as noise reduction ratings. Essentially, a noise reduction rating is a guideline or standard that acts as an absolute reference concerning the amount of predicted hearing protection a certain piece of equipment will supply at any given time in an overly noisy work atmosphere. Most hearing devices are designed to decrease the amount of noise exposure with the intention of creating a safer working environment for employees.

Noise reduction ratings are measured in decibels (a unit of measurement used to classify how powerful or dense a certain sound is); for instance, a certain device may be screened to discern how great a potential it may hold for reducing decibels. This screening is often performed during experiments within scientific laboratories.

Managing Worker Exposure to Silica-Based Products in Sequences of Shale Reservoir Stimulation Operations

Source: E&P Magazine | 19 August 2014

Employing an occupational and safety management system to shale gas reservoir stimulation operations assures that worker health and safety are considered at each step in the hydraulic fracturing life cycle. Management systems also support the ongoing reassessment that is required as new information is developed about the hazards of new and existing proppants and other chemical hazards, resulting in sustainable health and safety performance.

Exposure to crystalline silica particles of respirable size has been identified as an occupational health hazard associated with hydraulic fracturing operations. When inhaled, respirable-sized particles can enter the gas-exchange regions of the lung, according to a June 2012 hazard alert from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) that was titled “Worker Exposure to Silica During Hydraulic Fracturing.” Exposures are typically due to the mechanical handling of large volumes of dry crystalline silica. Future innovations, including the use of nano-enabled proppants and lubricants, may introduce occupational health hazards that have not yet been fully characterized.

Uncertainties exist about exposure risks and the appropriate controls needed to mitigate the potential risks to worker health. These factors prompt the adoption of a robust management system to ensure that worker health and safety are considered at each step in the development, use, and ultimate disposal of silica and other proppant materials.

Group To Examine Potential Health Effects From Producing Unconventional Resources

Source: Journal of Petroleum Technology | 15 August 2014

Unconventional resources offer many substantial benefits, yet the rapid increase in production of these resources using hydraulic fracturing has generated scrutiny by some policymakers and advocates who cite health concerns. The Exploration and Production Health Issues Group was recently formed to provide research, scientific analysis, and guidance on health issues regarding unconventional-resource production (URP). The group is particularly focused on community health concerns, including those associated with the compositions of hydraulic-fracturing fluid and flowback, effects on aquifers, air emissions, and psychosocial stress related to operations.

Chemical Disclosure

Opinion polls have found that community residents are most concerned about the possibility of drinking-water contamination from hydraulic fracturing. The idea that fracturing fluids of unknown composition are pumped underground through groundwater is the cause of that concern. A key issue for the industry to address is communicating the full nature of this risk while maintaining the confidentiality of proprietary chemicals used. The composition of fracturing fluids is the intellectual property of companies that develop the wellsite. The skill required to identify the right fluid composition for particular fracturing operations is what keeps those companies in business. But the need to protect some portion of fluid compositions as confidential business information (CBI) has been exploited by some opposed to URP to spread fear about unknown toxic chemicals and the harm they may cause.

To address this challenge, the Groundwater Protection Council, an organization of state regulators, created FracFocus. FracFocus is a Web-based chemical disclosure registry where the nonconfidential chemicals used in fracturing for a particular wellsite are posted for public viewing. In many states, the use of FracFocus to disclose nonconfidential chemicals is mandatory. Some segments of the URP industry believe that additional steps must be taken to develop criteria to assess the suitability of a chemical for use in URP from the perspective of health, safety, and environmental effects, and they have been working to develop criteria and a user-friendly tool to implement those criteria in URP operations. While some chemicals will continue to be identified as CBI under existing regulations and policy, operators and service companies would apply the established criteria of suitability for hydraulic fracturing. The objective is to encourage continued development of new and improved fracturing fluids while maintaining the intellectual–property protections of the companies that develop them and enhancing public confidence that protection of health and the environment is integrated into the selection of chemicals.

The balance between the legitimate need to keep certain information confidential and the processes by which compositional information is provided to experts on a need-to-know basis should be communicated better to the public to help build and maintain trust.

Program Ranks Musculoskeletal Risk of Operating Valves in Process Industries

Source: Journal of Petroleum Technology | 7 August 2014

Every process plant presents a high number and diversity of valves that control the flow of feedstock, products, and service liquids and gases. A comprehensive program was developed for a major US refinery to assess the musculoskeletal risk associated with manually operated valves then to rank each valve according to the risk each poses to plant operators and maintenance technicians. Valve repair and replacement is expensive, so the cost-effective approach was to assess only those valves that are critical to plant operation.

Introduction

Process plants contain a large number of process valves with a wide diversity of designs that control the flow of a wide range of fluids. The ergonomic issues associated with the design, operation, and maintenance of valves include

  • Physical stress to open and close them
  • Potential for injuries and subsequent related costs
  • Lack of access to process-critical valves
  • Difficulty of removing and replacing them
  • Potential for process upsets when valves cannot be operated in the time required

As a result of injuries suffered while operating valves, a major US petroleum-refinery company initiated a program to identify high-risk valves and to modify them to reduce the operating risk of injury.

Fig. 1—Systematic approach to working with valves in process operations.

A model, illustrated in Fig. 1, was developed to create a systematic approach to identify the valve issues in a process plant, analyze the issues, prioritize the valves that need attention, implement a solution, and measure the results. The approach can be modified to reflect the unique character of the plant that implements the program.

The objectives of the study were to

  • Develop a valve-risk-assessment program unique to the process plant based on the plant’s human-factors engineering-design standards and the valve-assessment model.
  • Assist site personnel in identifying the process-significant valves and surveying them to determine the top candidates for repair or replacement.

Process-significant valves were those that met the following definitions:

  • Frequently operated—valves that are operated more than four times per year
  • Operated in an emergency—emergency block valves, emergency isolation valves, battery-limit valves, depressuring valves, and dump valves
  • Manual, gear-operated valves
  • Large valves—valves with valve wheels ≥24 in. in diameter
  • Manual block valves and bypass valves around control valves

Column: Quantitative Risk Assessment of Toxic Gas Hazards

Source: Health and Safety Middle East | 14 July 2014

Personal protective equipment (PPE) such as self-contained breathing apparatus, protective clothing, safety glasses, boots, and gloves are widely used in today’s oil and gas industry. Temporary refuge shelters as well as fresh air supply systems are normally recommended when the presence of highly toxic gases is possible.

The question is how to avoid a large number of fatalities or serious injuries in the case of undesired toxic gas release or toxic liquid spill and how deeply should one look into the safety equipment and systems? With companies in the oil and gas industry operating globally, they are always worried about their reputations because huge markets could be lost. Companies, therefore, are concerned about the health of employees, the effect of their business on the environment, the capital investment from one side, and the amount of money they will need to invest in order to practically and reasonably avoid a catastrophic release of toxic substances.

Some may believe the greater the investment in safety, the safer the industry will be. While this may be common sense, history shows this is not true. This article shows a risk-based methodology to try to find an optimized solution, which takes into consideration the reasonable amount of investment required for safety in the industry, to avoid the occurrence of a major accident hazard (MAH). This is done by identifying components that contribute to these hazards, as well as suggesting methods to either eliminate these components or provide recommendations that make the risks tolerable.

Heat Mitigation Measures in Shell’s Qatar Pearl GTL Construction Project

Source: Health and Safety Middle East | 14 July 2014

The extreme heat stress conditions present in Qatar during the summer months require the implementation of stringent control measures to protect the health and safety of the workforce.

Pearl GTL

During the years of construction, Pearl GTL—the world’s largest gas-to-liquids plant in the world—developed its Beat the Heat campaign, taking into consideration learnings and best practices from across the industry, other countries in the region, and across the globe.

In order to minimize the risk, a multipronged approach was taken under the canopy of the Project Heat Stress Prevention Procedure, based on the traditional risk-management concept of identify, assess, control, and recover.

Qatar’s massive Pearl GTL facility, built in partnership with Qatar Petroleum, took more than 500 million man-hours to construct. At its peak, the construction workforce reached nearly 53,000 people.

Public Health England: Hydraulic Fracturing Poses Low Risk to Human Health if Properly Regulated

Source: Shale Energy Insider | 30 June 2014

Public Health England (PHE) has published the final version of its review of the potential public health effects of exposures to chemical and radioactive pollutants as a result of shale gas extraction.

PHE has reviewed the literature on the potential public health effects of exposures to chemical and radioactive pollutants as a result of shale gas extraction. It has concluded that the currently available evidence indicates that the potential risks to public health in the vicinity of shale gas extraction sites will be low if shale gas extraction is properly run and regulated.

Where potential risks have been identified in the literature, the reported problems are typically a result of operational failure and a poor regulatory environment. Therefore good on-site management and appropriate regulation of all aspects from exploratory drilling, gas capture, use and storage of fracking fluid, and post-operations decommissioning are essential to minimize the risk to the environment and public health.