Health
West Virginia University | 18 January 2017

Noise Pollution From Oil and Gas Development May Harm Human Health

Modern oil and gas development techniques such as directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing produce noise at levels that may increase the risk of adverse effects on human health, including sleep disturbance, cardiovascular disease, and other conditions that are negatively affeted by stress, according to a study by authors at the nonprofit science and policy research institute, PSE Healthy Energy and West Virginia University. It is the first peer-reviewed study to analyze the potential public health effects of ambient noise related to hydraulic fracturing operations.

A hydraulic fracturing site in Dawson Creek, Canada, uses heavy equipment such as drills, pumps, and compressors to extract liquefied gas from ground sources like shale and tight sands. Noise from that equipment may increase health risks for adjacent communities, a new study found. Credit: West Virginia University.

A hydraulic fracturing site in Dawson Creek, Canada, uses heavy equipment such as drills, pumps, and compressors to extract liquefied gas from ground sources like shale and tight sands. Noise from that equipment may increase health risks for adjacent communities, a new study found. Credit: West Virginia University.

“People living near oil and gas development may bring up concerns like air pollution, traffic, and groundwater safety, but many also complain about noise,” said Jake Hays, director of the Environmental Health Program at PSE Healthy Energy and lead author of the paper, which was published 9 December in Science of the Total Environment. “But, until now, most of the research relevant to public health has focused on the impacts of air and water pollution,” he said.

Hydraulic fracturing technologies have unlocked oil and gas deposits from formations such as shale and tight sands that previously were not considered economically viable. But the environmental and public health effects of such operations are still emerging. To understand whether noise from hydraulic fracturing might affect the health of surrounding communities, PSE Healthy Energy researchers gathered all available data and measurements of noise levels at oil and gas operations and compared the information to established health-based standards from the World Health Organization and other groups.

They found that noise from hydraulic fracturing operations may contribute to adverse health outcomes in three categories:

  • Annoyance: Sustained noise may produce a host of negative responses such as feelings of anger, anxiety, helplessness, distraction, and exhaustion and may predict future psychological distress.
  • Sleep disturbance: Awakening and changes in sleep state have aftereffects that include drowsiness, cognitive impairment, and long-term chronic sleep disturbance.
  • Cardiovascular health: Studies have found positive correlations between chronic noise exposure and elevated blood pressure, hypertension, and heart disease.

NIOSH | 4 January 2017

NIOSH Releases Guidance for Implementing Total Worker Health in the Workplace

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and its Total Worker Health (TWH) program released a workbook in December that provides a practical starting point for employers, workers, and other professionals to implement workplace safety and health programs and identify initial steps to improve worker well-being. The workbook can help organizations identify and address job-related factors that may be contributing to health problems, such as hours of work, workload and stress levels, interactions with coworkers, and unhealthful work environments.

NIOSH defines Total Worker Health as policies, programs, and practices that integrate protection from work-related safety and health hazards with promotion of injury and illness prevention efforts to advance worker well-being.

The workbook, Fundamentals of Total Worker Health Approaches: Essential Elements for Advancing Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being, prioritizes a hazard-free work environment for all workers and applies a modern prevention approach—consistent with traditional occupational safety and health prevention principles—that recognizes that job-related factors can have an important effect on the well-being of workers, their families, and their communities.

“Integrated interventions that collectively address worker safety, health, and well-being help to align with the recognition that work influences overall health,” said NIOSH Director John Howard. “The Total Worker Health philosophy advocates for the integration of occupational safety and health protection in the workplace, advancing overall worker health and well-being through the elimination or control of workplace hazards.”

The workbook introduces five defining elements of TWH:

  • Demonstrate leadership commitment to worker safety and health at all levels of the organization
  • Design work to eliminate or reduce safety and health hazards and promote worker well-being
  • Promote and support worker engagement throughout program design and implementation
  • Ensure confidentiality and privacy of workers
  • Integrate relevant systems to advance worker well-being

In addition to providing examples of TWH approaches, a self-assessment tool, and resources to develop an action plan and measure progress specific to the organization, the workbook features a new conceptual model, the Hierarchy of Controls Applied to NIOSH Total Worker Health. A hierarchy of controls is a system that lists how to minimize or eliminate exposure to hazards in the workplace, from what is most effective to what is least effective. This expanded new model serves to illustrate how Total Worker Health approaches emphasize organizational-level interventions to protect workers’ safety, health, and well-being.

In 2017, NIOSH intends to gather feedback from organizations, practitioners, and others who pilot this workbook.

Find the workbook here.

 

Offshore Energy Today | 15 December 2016

Iqarus Opens Offshore Medics Training Center in Aberdeen

Healthcare and medical solutions company Iqarus has launched a new training center for offshore medics, emergency response teams, and people who work in remote and challenging environments.

Iqarus' training centre in Hereford, UK.

Iqarus’ training centre in Hereford, UK.

Iqarus said on 15 December that more than USD 1.25 million was invested in the design and construction of the center.

The company added that the center would also host offshore medic training currently provided by Iqarus from its Montrose facility, making the Aberdeen-based site “one of the most advanced training facilities anywhere in Europe.”

The Aberdeen site, located next to the fire training center, has more than 4,000 square feet of clinical training rooms, classrooms, and instructor offices. Iqarus’ team of eight full-time trainers will deliver medical and hostile environment training programs for remote and offshore medics, first responders, media, international travelers, and executives.

PubMed | 14 December 2016

Behavioral Interventions To Promote Workers’ Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

Respiratory hazards are common in the workplace. Depending on the hazard and exposure, the health consequences may include mild to life-threatening illnesses from infectious agents, acute effects ranging from respiratory irritation to chronic lung conditions, or even cancer from exposure to chemicals or toxins. Use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is an important preventive measure in many occupational settings. RPE only offers protection when worn properly, when removed safely, and when it is either replaced or maintained regularly. The effectiveness of behavioral interventions either directed at employers or organizations or directed at individual workers to promote RPE use in workers remains an important unanswered question.

The paper’s authors included 14 studies that evaluated the effect of training and education on RPE use, which involved 2,052 participants. The included studies had been conducted with farm, healthcare, production line, office, and coke oven workers as well as nursing students and people with mixed occupations. All included studies reported the effects of interventions as use of RPE, as correct use of RPE, or as indirect measures of RPE use. The authors did not find any studies where the intervention was delivered and assessed at the whole organization level or in which the main focus was on positive or negative incentives. The quality of the evidence for all comparisons was rated as low to very low.

The authors conclude that there is very low quality evidence that behavioral interventions, namely education and training, do not have a considerable effect on the frequency or correctness of RPE use in workers.

Environmental Protection | 6 December 2016

Elemental Analysis of Airborne Particles

Air pollution is a continuous concern worldwide. The harmful health effects of human exposure to heavy metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, or cadmium) absorbed into particulate matter and carried through the air is of particular interest.

ICP mass spectrometer.

These particles are principally generated by processes such as combustion. The health and safety monitoring and analysis of the elements present in these airborne particles are performed by industry and environmental protection agencies, as well as research institutes and testing laboratories.

Over time, several spectrometric technologies have been employed. Each has its own pluses and minuses, and the technologies have evolved and improved over the years.

Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was once commonly used for air filter analysis. While often still the most affordable solution per initial purchase price, AAS may suffer from limitations including low dynamic range, chemical interferences, sequential operation (and associated relatively low throughput), safety risks when left unattended, recurring lamp replacement expenses, and the need for frequent recalibration. Thus, other technologies have increasingly replaced it.

Photometers also were used fairly frequently. But these suffer several disadvantages, such as low accuracy for high concentrations, the necessity of more extensive sample preparation, and the lack of simultaneous screening for all targeted elements. With the advent of better technologies shown, photometric analyzers are probably more suitable for measuring alkali metals than the toxic heavy metals most of interest in air particle analysis.

Today, the most commonly used technology for analysis of airborne particles involving inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Depending on desired detection limits—and whether local regulations demand a specific choice—these are inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) instruments.

Occupational & Environmental Medicine | 30 November 2016

Working Hours and the Onset of Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether working beyond the standard working hours was associated with a greater risk of depressive disorder among workers included in published prospective studies.

The eligibility criteria were as follows:

  • Participants were adult workers
  • Exposure was defined as overtime work
  • Outcome were depressive disorders clinically diagnosed or assessed by a structured interview
  • The study design was prospective or cohort

Seven studies were identified in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Overtime work was associated with a small, nonsignificant, elevated risk of depressive disorder in a random effects model. The association tended to be greater for women. The risk of working 50 or more hours per week was slightly but not significantly increased . The effect of overtime work on depressive disorder remains inconclusive and may be small if not negligible. Sex differences and the effect of longer working hours on depressive disorder should be addressed in the future.

BMC Public Health | 10 November 2016

Occupational Exposure to Silica Dust and Risk of Lung Cancer: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

Crystalline silica is considered as one of the most common and serious occupational hazards to workers’ health. Although its association with lung cancer has been studied for many decades, the conclusion remains somewhat controversial. The objectives of this study are to review and summarize the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between occupational silica exposure and risk of lung cancer and to provide an update on this major occupational health concern.

The results of the meta-analysis supported the carcinogenic role of silica on the lungs, which was more pronounced at higher levels of exposure, in the presence of silicosis and in the mining industry. Further research is needed to evaluate whether nonsilicotics are truly at risk, whether a predisposing factor would explain this potential risk, and to determine the mechanism of carcinogenicity of silica in humans.

Offshore Energy Today | 20 October 2016

Exxon Mobil Set To Start Drilling as Liberia Breaks Free From Ebola

US oil giant Exxon Mobil is reportedly set to begin drilling operations in its license offshore Liberia.

According to Reuters, which cited the company’s spokesperson, the drilling operation in Exxon Mobil’s Liberia-13 deepwater block, is expected to start in November 2016.

Exxon Mobil acquired an 80% stake in LB-13 back in 2013 from Canadian Overseas Petroleum, with drilling originally slated for 2014. Exxon later increased interest to 83%.

However, Exxon Mobil was forced to postpone its drilling plans because of the outbreak of Ebola, which led to deaths of thousands since the first cases discovered back in 2014.

The virus, often fatal, is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the recent outbreak in west Africa, with first cases notified in March 2014 and later spreading to Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, was the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976. There have been more cases and deaths in that outbreak than all others combined. More than 11.000 people died.

Liberia first declared the end of Ebola human-to-human transmission on May 2015, but the virus has re-emerged three times in the country since then, a WHO statement from June 2016 said.

OSHA | 20 October 2016

OSHA Updates Guidelines for Health and Safety Programs

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) on 18 October released its Recommended Practices for Safety and Health Programs to help employers establish a methodical approach to improving safety and health in their workplaces.

The recommendations update OSHA’s 1989 guidelines to reflect changes in the economy, workplaces, and evolving safety and health issues. The recommendations feature a new, easier-to-use format and should be particularly helpful to small- and medium-sized businesses. Also new is a section on multiemployer workplaces and a greater emphasis on continuous improvement. Supporting tools and resources are included.

The programs are not prescriptive; they are built around a core set of business processes that can be implemented to suit a particular workplace in any industry. OSHA has seen them successfully implemented in manufacturing, construction, health care, technology, retail, services, higher education, and government.

Key principles include: leadership from the top to send a message that safety and health is critical to the business operations; worker participation in finding solutions; and a systematic approach to find and fix hazards.

“Since OSHA’s original guidelines were published more than 25 years ago, employers and employees have gained a lot of experience in how to use safety and health programs to systematically prevent injuries and illnesses in the workplace,” said Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health David Michaels. “We know that working together to implement these programs will help prevent injuries and illnesses, and also make businesses more sustainable.”

Petroleum Connection | 11 October 2016

The New OSHA Standard for Industrial Silica Exposure

The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has issued a final rule that provides stronger protection for workers against the harmful effects of respirable crystalline silica dust. Silica is a common mineral found in products and materials used in many industries. If your processes produce dust, you may have a respirable silica dust hazard and you need to determine if your facility is at risk.

The New OSHA Standard: What You Need to Know
The percentage of silica in the product will affect the OSHA exposure limit that you need to maintain.

Significant aspects of the new rule include a reduced exposure limit. The new OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) for respirable crystalline silica has been reduced to 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air, averaged over an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) work shift. This limit is two to five times stricter than the previous threshold limits of 100 micrograms per cubic meter of air for general industry and 250 micrograms for construction. The new, more-stringent PEL is expected to enhance worker protection by sharply reducing both short-term and long-term exposure to respirable silica dust.

OSHA requires employers to use engineering controls such as water to keep the dust down or dust collection (ventilation) to capture airborne particulate and keep worker exposure below the 50 microgram PEL. While engineering controls are the preferred approach, employers are required to provide personal respiratory protection when engineering controls are not able to limit exposures to the permissible level.

Employers are required to develop a written exposure control plan (hazard plan) to show how compliance will be achieved. The plan should also limit access to high-exposure areas and incorporate training of workers on silica risks and basic safety practices so they can recognize how to limit their own exposure.

Medical exams, lung health monitoring, and record-keeping are required for employees who have been identified as “highly exposed workers.” Exposures above 25 micrograms per cubic meter in an 8-hour TWA over 30 days per year represents an action level where the medical surveillance is required. Effective engineering controls are often capable of maintaining silica dust concentrations below this action level.

International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health | 19 September 2016

Personal Exposure to Benzene and 1,3-Butadiene During Petroleum Refinery Turnarounds and Work in the Oil Harbor

Petroleum refinery workers’ exposure to the carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene has decreased during normal operations. However, certain occupational groups or events at the refineries still involve a risk of higher exposures. The aim of this study was to examine the personal exposure to benzene and 1,3-butadiene at refinery turnarounds and during work in the oil harbor.

Work within the petroleum refinery industry, with potential exposure to open product streams containing higher fractions of benzene, pose a risk of personal benzene exposures exceeding the occupational exposure limits. Refinery workers performing these work tasks frequently, such as contractors, sewage tanker drivers, and oil harbor workers, need to be identified and protected.