Solid-Particles Flow Regimes in Air/Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Pipeline
The entrainment of solid particles in crude oil occurs during production from reservoirs with low formation strength. The stationary solid-particles bed at the horizontal pipe bottom can cause operational problems such as production decline, excessive pressure loss, equipment failure, erosion, and corrosion. Solid-particles deposition can be managed by operating above the critical solid-particles-deposition velocity, which is the velocity that maintains the continuous movement of particles at the pipe bottom. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of solid-particle flow regimes in stratified flow in a horizontal pipeline is presented, which is a novel contribution because it is applied to multiphase flow. The effect of concentration on the solid-particle flow regimes and identification of the critical solid-particles-deposition velocities for various particle concentrations are also investigated.
The understanding of solid-particle flow regimes in pipelines for any given set of operational conditions is important for identifying the nature of particle interaction and movement. Experimental studies are conducted in a 4-in. horizontal pipeline for a stratified flow regime that uses air, water, and glass beads at relatively low solid-particles concentrations (<10,000 ppm). The effects of different experimental conditions, such as gas velocity, solid-particles concentration, and particle size are investigated in this study. Six main solid-particles flow regimes in horizontal air/water flow are identified, and can be distinguished visually: fully dispersed solid flow, dilute solids at wall, concentrated solids at wall, moving dunes, stationary dunes, and stationary bed. Therefore, the critical solid-particles-deposition velocities are determined on the basis of the transition between moving (concentrated solids at wall/moving dunes, as appropriate) and stationary (stationary dunes/bed, as appropriate) solid particles. The experimental data show that with small particle size, the critical solid-particles-deposition velocity is almost independent of concentration, while with larger particle sizes, the critical velocity increases with the concentration.
Pembina Pipeline To Acquire Kinder Morgan Canada in $4.35-Billion Deal
Calgary-based Pembina Pipeline Corp. has entered into agreements to acquire Kinder Morgan Canada Ltd. and the US portion of the Cochin Pipeline system from Kinder Morgan for a total purchase price of approximately $4.35 billion.
Swire Seabed Completes Autonomous Pipeline Inspection for Equinor
The subsea operations company said its most recent campaign is the first fully unmanned offshore pipeline inspection completed “over the horizon,” surveying up to 100 km from the shore.
First Permian Crude Delivered From Cactus II Pipeline
Trafigura confirmed that it had begun shipments from the Permian to Corpus Christi via the pipeline, which has a 670,000-B/D capacity. Operator Plains All American announced last week that it had completed work on the pipeline.
Don't miss out on the latest technology delivered to your email every two weeks. Sign up for the OGF newsletter. If you are not logged in, you will receive a confirmation email that you will need to click on to confirm you want to receive the newsletter.
16 August 2019
12 August 2019
14 August 2019
14 August 2019